Kyoto calls for a relatively modest reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and sets an average target of 5% below 1990 levels for industrialized countries. The protocol does not set reduction targets for developing countries, which are set on the principle that the developed countries that created the problem should take the first steps to solve it. However, rapidly developing economies, such as china and India, will have a huge impact on greenhouse gas emissions in the future. The lack of commitments from developing countries is one of the reasons why the United States has refused to ratify Kyoto. Today, climate change affects every country on every continent. It disrupts economies and affects life, costing people, communities and countries today and tomorrow even more. All contracting parties undertake (Article 4) to achieve the treaty`s objective. Although these commitments are defined more generally in the Framework Convention, the additional legal instruments negotiated later are intended to make them more concrete. The UNFCCC defines different categories of countries and defines different responsibilities for them. There are three categories of contracting parties: industrialized countries, industrialized countries with special financial responsibility and developing countries. The adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 set a precedent in the fight against climate change by setting the goal of “stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interventions in the climate system” (United Nations, 1992). Subsequently, with the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1998, an international agreement on the UNFCCC, the international community recognized the responsibility of developing countries for “currently high emissions of TTH into the atmosphere due to more than 150 years of industrial activity” and set internationally binding emission reduction targets (United Nations , 1998). For a number of reasons, the proposed agricultural receivership programs C would have political appeal.
First, the proposed programs would be voluntary, in accordance with the position contrary to mandatory programs. Second, the agricultural receivership of C, in addition to reducing greenhouse gases, also brings environmental benefits to reducing soil erosion and improving soil quality. Third, the new programs could probably be designed to be consistent with U.S. commitments in the agricultural sector, as these programs would meet the requirements of programs that are not subject to limit values. The voluntary nature of these programs, public support for environmental programs and continued pressure to support combined farm income for the development of several voluntary C markets pending future national and international markets. Academics and environmentalists criticize Article 3, paragraph 5 of the convention, which states that any climate measures that limit international trade should be avoided. The Kyoto Protocol is the first unFCCC implementation agreement. Although most countries, including the United States, have ratified the UNFCCC, the United States has never ratified the Kyoto rules. The Kyoto Protocol came into force in February 2005, with the ratification of this protocol. Kyoto has set emission reduction targets for 37 industrialized countries.
The carbon market, created by its ratification, has set a powerful precedent for emissions trading. Kyoto`s emissions reductions are modest – usually less than 10% of the 1990 level – but the agreement and its widely accepted acceptance (184 countries have ratified) provide an important international dynamic for the fight against climate change. The Paris Agreement sends a strong signal to markets that it is now time to invest in a low-emissions economy. It contains a framework for transparency to build mutual trust.